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无处不在的互联网: 物联网时代即将来临

行业资讯 / 2022-11-23 23:22

本文摘要:From meat thermometers monitored with a smartphone to Wi-Fi-equipped dog collars, devices and services in homes and businesses are increasingly being connected to the Internet, a long-awaited trend that is causing a surge of optimism in th


From meat thermometers monitored with a smartphone to Wi-Fi-equipped dog collars, devices and services in homes and businesses are increasingly being connected to the Internet, a long-awaited trend that is causing a surge of optimism in the tech sector.从以智能手机监控的肉类温度计到配有Wi-Fi的犬只项圈,家用和商用的设备与服务更加多地与互联网连接,这一人们期待已久的趋势于是以引起科技行业波涛汹涌的悲观情绪。Large and small companies are churning out a number of Internet-connected gadgets, a central theme as the Consumer Electronics Show opens this week in Las Vegas.大大小小的公司争相发售众多相连互联网的设备,这是消费电子展(Consumer Electronics Show)本周在拉斯维加斯揭幕之际的一个中心主题。

Devices on the market or the drawing board include smart door locks, toothbrushes, wristwatches, fitness trackers, smoke detectors, surveillance cameras, ovens, toys and robots.早已上市或尚能在设计中的设备还包括智能门锁、牙刷、腕表、健美记录仪、烟雾探测器、监控摄像头、炉具、玩具和机器人。But the much-ballyhooed Internet of Things still is largely a collection of possibilities. Sales of the new-wave products are threatened by a number of stumbling blocks that could slow investment--from conflicting wireless-communications standards to debates about how much processing power should be built into gadgets.但规模大大收缩的“物联网”(Internet of Things)在相当大程度上依然只是各种可能性的子集。这些新浪潮产品的销售受到众多有可能减慢投资的障碍威胁――从互相矛盾的无线通信标准到有关设备处置能力的争辩不一而足。

Some industry executives say privacy concerns may be even more serious, without a consensus on how to exploit all the data that could be generated by a flood of new sensors and Internet-connected video cameras.一些业内高管指出,人们对隐私的忧虑有可能更加相当严重,因为一大批新的传感器和相连互联网的视频摄像头将产生大量数据,这些数据如何加以利用仍未构成共识。Big data is worth absolutely nothing without big judgment, says Joseph Bradley, director of what Cisco Systems Inc. calls its Internet of Everything consulting practice.思科系统(Cisco Systems Inc.)“万物网络”(Internet of Everything)咨询服务的负责人布拉德利(Joseph Bradley)说道,如果没最重要的判断力,大数据意味著是毫无价值。

Nonetheless, heavyweights like General Electric Co., Intel Corp. and Qualcomm Inc. are jockeying for position.然而,通用电气(General Electric Co.)、英特尔(Intel Corp.)和高通(Qualcomm Inc.)等重量级企业都在争相守住不利地位。Ive never seen our industry go as fast as it is, or create as much value, says Marc Benioff, chief executive of Salesforce.com Inc. Its a very magical time.Salesforce.com Inc.首席执行长贝尼奥夫(Marc Benioff)说道,我从未见过我们的行业如此迅猛地发展,或建构如此之大的价值。这是个极为神秘的时代。

Cisco estimates that the number of devices connected to the Internet will swell from about 10 billion today to 50 billion by 2020, as wireless links spread beyond smartphones and PCs to many other kinds of devices. The Silicon Valley giants chief executive, John Chambers, is expected to discuss the opportunities Tuesday in a keynote speech at CES.思科估算,随着无线连接从智能手机和电脑蔓延到众多其他类型的设备,相连互联网的设备数量将从当前的大约100亿很快减少到2020年的500亿。这家硅谷巨头的首席执行长钱伯斯(John Chambers)预计周二在消费电子展的主旨演说中将探究涉及机会。Gartner Inc. puts the number of connected devices at fewer than 30 billion, but sees $309 billion in additional revenue for product and service suppliers by 2020 and $1.9 trillion in total economic impact from cost savings, improved productivity and other factors.市场研究机构Gartner Inc.预计到2020年连网设备数量将近300亿,但预计产品和服务提供商营收将减少3,090亿美元,同时因成本节省、生产率提升和其他因素给经济导致的影响总计约1.9万亿美元。

The vision of a world of smart gadgets emerged even before the Web. A.C. Mike Markkula, a co-founder of Apple Computer Inc., had a brainstorm in the mid-1980s about combining functions for networking and controlling devices on a single chip. Those neurons, as they came to be called, were expected to spread widely once their cost fell to around $1. But the company he founded, Echelon Corp., didnt hit that target and has had a bumpy history.对于智能设备世界的设想早于在互联网时代之前就有数之。苹果电脑公司(Apple Computer Inc.)牵头创始人马库拉(Mike Markkula)在上世纪80年代就灵机一动明确提出了将网络与掌控设备的功能子集于一块芯片上的点子。人们预计,这种后来被称作“神经元”的芯片成本一旦上升到1美元左右,将不会广为传播。但马库拉创立的公司Echelon Corp.没能超过这个目标,经历了艰辛历史。

I keep kicking myself, he says. I was 20 years too soon.马库拉说道,我仍然严苛愧疚。我的点子早于了20年。

Chip makers did steadily push down the cost of adding intelligence to everyday gadgets, often to less than $5. Another driver has been the onslaught of smartphones and tablets, which can serve as handy Web-connected remote controls for devices in the home and workplace.芯片生产商显然急剧太低了将日常设备智能化的成本,这类成本一般来说将近5美元。另一个推动力是智能手机和平板电脑的横空出世,它们可以作为便利的家用和商用设备连网遥控器。Potential benefits range from fairly prosaic to profound. Consumers, for example, can now use smartphones to remotely check if they locked doors, left the lights on or turned down the thermostat. Retailers can help smartphone users find goods on store shelves, and wirelessly pitch sales promotions. Parking meters can communicate with smartphone users.有可能的益处从平平平凡到意义深远影响。例如,现在消费者可以利用智能手机远程检查自己否锁住了门、记得关灯或否开动了恒温器。


Companies like Silver Spring Networks Inc. sell wireless meters to manage energy usage, while GE exploits data generated by sensors to monitor the health of jet engines and gas turbines.Silver Spring Networks Inc.这样的公司销售管理能源用于的无线计量表,标准化电器则利用传感器产生的数据监控喷气式发动机和燃气涡轮的情况。The opportunities have attracted a number of startups, some of which have managed to raise substantial funding from venture capitalists. The best-known is Nest Labs Inc., a maker of Wi-Fi-equipped thermostats and smoke detectors led by former Apple Inc. executive Tony Fadell. Another example is August, which is developing smart door locks and has raised $10 million to date.这样的机会更有了一大批初创企业,其中一些顺利地从风险投资家那里筹措了相当可观的资金。其中最出名的就是Nest Labs Inc.,该公司生产配有Wi-Fi的恒温器和烟雾探测器,其领导者是苹果公司(Apple Inc.)前高管法德尔(Tony Fadell)。另一个例子是生产智能门锁的August,迄今已筹资1,000万美元。


Others are leaning heavily on crowdfunding sites like Kickstarter and Indiegogo, as investors worry about the potential costs of hatching hardware startups--and the likelihood that entrenched companies will adapt their existing products to dominate Internet-of-Things opportunities.其他一些初创企业相当严重倚赖Kickstarter和Indiegogo之类的众投网站,原因是投资者忧虑硬件初创企业的潜在产卵成本,以及地位巩固的公司将调整现有产品、主导“物联网”机遇的可能性。The body count is quite high of startups that have made hardware, says Jason Johnson, Augusts CEO and founder of the Internet of Things Consortium.August首席执行长、非营利的组织Internet of Things Consortium的创始人约翰逊(Jason Johnson)说道,生产硬件的初创公司为数众多。For those reasons, some startups are developing new services to help manage connected devices, while existing companies are modifying business models to exploit the data likely to flow from them. Insurance companies, for example, can respond to sensors and wireless connections in cars to charge drivers by the mile and speed they drive, instead of by where they live.出于这些原因,一些初创公司在研发新的服务以协助管理网络设备,而现有的企业则争相修正业务模式,以利用网络设备有可能产生的数据。

例如保险公司可以利用汽车中的传感器和无线连接,依据驾驶员里程数和行经速度来向驾车者缴纳费用,而不是依据驾车者的居住地。The value of the devices will be secondary to the services they enable, says Thomas Lee, a Stanford University professor of electrical engineering and co-founder of Ayla Networks Inc., an online service hoping to help turn ordinary products into cloud-connected devices.斯坦福大学(Standord University)电气工程学教授、Ayla Networks Inc.牵头创始人Thomas Lee说道,这些设备本身的价值比起它们使之沦为有可能的服务来说是次要的。Ayla Networks是一个网络服务,期望协助将普通产品转化成为云联网设备。

So far, however, smart-home products seem mainly to be attracting technology enthusiasts. Only 1% to 2% of American consumers surveyed by Forrester Research in mid-2013 were using five widely touted home-automation offerings. Some 28% of respondents said they were interested in controlling appliances with a smartphone, but 53% werent.然而到目前为止,智能家用产品或许主要还是更有着科技爱好者。研究公司Forrester Research在2013年中调查的美国消费者中,仅有1%至2%的受调查者在用于五种甚广不受讥讽的家用自动化产品。约28%的受调查者说道,他们对于以智能手机掌控家电有兴趣,但53%的人回应没有兴趣。

Other hurdles face companies tackling the Internet of Things, including a fragmented assortment of wireless communications technologies. In home automation, for example, device makers face options that include Insteon, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigby, Z-Wave and earlier proprietary technologies.还有其他一些障碍令其企业无法逃跑“物联网”的机遇,还包括无线通信技术形形色色的类型。比如在家庭自动化方面,设备生产商就面对着多种自由选择,还包括Insteon、Wi-Fi、蓝牙、Zigby、Z-Wave和更加早于的专利技术。

Its not that things arent getting connected--they are getting connected badly, says Rob Chandhok, president of Qualcomms interactive platforms unit.高通的对话平台部门负责人钱德霍克(Rob Chandhok)说道,实质上并不是没构建“万物网络”,而是它们网络的方式过于差劲了。Qualcomm is trying to rally hardware makers around a technology called AllJoyn to help devices discover each other and collaborate. Meanwhile, startups trying to sell their own control devices are going through contortions; Revolv Inc., for example, is marketing a hub that can communicate using seven different radio technologies.高通正试图让硬件生产商团结一致在一项取名为AllJoyn的技术周围,协助各种设备互相找到并协作。与此同时,那些企图出售自己的掌控设备的初创公司也在经历种种变形;如Revolv Inc.正在营销一款中央枢钮设备,可以利用七种有所不同的无线电技术展开通信。Mike Soucie, Revolvs co-founder and marketing head, says agreements on key communications technologies may be five to 10 years away. Any standards that do emerge are likely to apply to a single market--like home security or transportation--rather than to many industries, predicts Gilad Meiri, chief executive of Neura Inc., a startup developing technology to help orchestrate connected devices.Revolv牵头创始人兼任营销负责人苏西(Mike Soucie)说道,有可能要五至10年才能就关键的通信技术达成协议。

初创公司Neura Inc.首席执行长梅里(Gilad Meiri)说道,以求显露的任何标准都有可能是限于于某个单一市场(如家庭安全性或交通),而不是在多行业通行。Neura致力于研发涉及技术,协助协商网络设备。Assuming devices can communicate, manufacturers need conventions for telling them what to do and how to work together. Meanwhile, other basic questions remain--like just how much intelligence should everyday devices have?假设有所不同设备之间需要构建交流,生产商就必须有统一的标准来发布命令指令以及让这些设备相互合作。

同时也还有其他一些基本的问题――比如日常设备应该不具备多低的智能?Companies like Intel and ARM Holdings PLC, which license technology to chip makers, stress the benefits brought by processors that can run sophisticated software and protocols that allow them to connect directly to the Internet.英特尔和ARM Holdings PLC这类向芯片生产商获取技术许可的公司特别强调可运营简单软件和协议的处理器所带给的益处,这样的处理器可让设备必要相连互联网。But others believe such complex technology can reduce the reliability of home appliances and other devices, while raising the odds of bugs or security holes that could be exploited by attackers. They prefer simpler chips called microcontrollers, which are harder to reprogram to do unintended things.但也有人指出,如此简单的科技有可能减少家用电器和其他设备的可靠性,同时减少有可能被攻击者利用的安全漏洞的机率。他们更加注目取名为微控制器的较小芯片,这类芯片更加无法通过再行编程去专门从事计划之外的任务。I want my refrigerator to be a thing; I dont want it to be a computer, says Shane Dyer, chief executive of Arrayent Inc., a startup marketing a Web-based service to manage microcontroller-powered devices.初创公司Arrayent Inc.的首席执行长戴尔(Shane Dyer)说道:我期望我的冰箱是个物件;我不期望它沦为一台电脑。

Arrayent营销一项基于网络的服务,用作管理以微控制器掌控的设备。Moreover, the data generated by connected devices could be used in ways consumers dont like and create liabilities for companies. Chris Bruce, chief executive of Sproutling--a startup developing a smartphone-connected baby monitor--wonders if services that store data from connected devices might get subpoenas if something bad happens.另外,联网设备所产生的数据有可能被用作消费者不不愿的用途,并给企业带给困难。

初创公司Sproutling首席执行长布鲁斯(Chris Bruce)在思维,如果再次发生很差的事情,那些存储联网设备所产生数据的服务不会会被无视法庭。该公司研发与智能手机连接的婴儿监视器。There are at least as many questions about the fast-growing flood of data from Internet-connected security cameras.相连互联网的安全性摄像头产生了很快快速增长的数据洪流,这些数据也某种程度引发了众多问题。


It is more than a little creepy, says David Alan Grier, an associate professor of science and technology policy at George Washington University and 2013 president of the IEEE Computer Society. There is going to have to be some clear thinking and some clear understanding of what is going on.乔治华盛顿大学(George Washington University)科学与技术政策副教授、2013年IEEE Computer Society主席格里尔(David Alan Grier)说道,这令人很有些毛骨悚然。未来人们必需明晰地思维和理解这一切是怎么回事。